Today is the 196th day of 2014. There are 169 days left in the year.
In 1099, Jerusalem was captured by the crusaders led by Norman and Flemish troops who forced the Muslim governor to surrender.
In 1795, The Marseillaise was adopted as the French national anthem.
In 1799, French soldiers in Egypt discovered the Rosetta Stone, which proved instrumental in deciphering ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs.
In 1869, margarine was patented in Paris.
In 1870, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be readmitted to the Union. Manitoba entered confederation as the fifth Canadian province.
In 1881, the outlaw Billy the Kid was shot dead in New Mexico.
In 1912, national insurance payments were introduced in England by Lloyd George.
In 1916, Boeing Co., originally known as Pacific Aero Products Co., was founded in Seattle.
In 1932, President Herbert Hoover announced he was slashing his own salary by 20 percent, from $75,000 to $60,000 a year; he also cut Cabinet members' salaries by 15 percent, from $15,000 to $12,750 a year.
In 1937, composer George Gershwin had two funeral services, one in Hollywood, California and the other in New York where his body was.
In 1948, President Harry Truman was nominated for another term of office by the Democratic national convention in Philadelphia.
In 1954, a prototype of the Boeing 707, the model 367-80, made its maiden flight from Renton Field south of Seattle.
In 1958, John Lennon's mother Julia died in a road accident in Liverpool, England
In 1971, President Richard Nixon delivered a televised address in which he announced he had accepted an invitation to visit the People's Republic of China.
In 1976, a 36-hour kidnap ordeal began for 26 schoolchildren and their bus driver when they were abducted near Chowchilla, California, by three gunmen and imprisoned in an underground cell. (The captives escaped unharmed.)
In 1979, President Jimmy Carter delivered his "malaise" speech in which he lamented what he called a "crisis of confidence" in America.
In 1983, eight people were killed when a suitcase bomb planted by Armenian extremists exploded at the Turkish Airlines counter at Orly Airport in Paris.
In 1991, singer-songwriters Burt Bacharach and Carol Bayer-Sager filed for divorce after 10 years of marriage.
In 1992, Arkansas Gov. Bill Clinton was nominated for president at the Democratic national convention in New York.
In 1997, Italian fashion king Gianni Versace was shot dead on the doorstep of his Miami, Florida, mansion.
In 2000, a tornado killed nine people when it hit a camping site at Pine Lake, Alberta.
In 2004, Retired Air Force Gen. Charles W. Sweeney, who piloted the plane that dropped the atomic bomb on Nagasaki, died in Boston at age 84.
In 2009, a Russian-made Iranian jetliner carrying 168 people crashed after taking off from Tehran, killing everyone aboard.
In 2010, after 85 days, BP stopped the flow of oil from a blown-out well in the Gulf of Mexico using a 75-ton cap lowered onto the wellhead earlier in the week.
In 2013, Miguel Angel Trevino Morales, the notoriously brutal leader of the feared Zetas drug cartel, was captured in the first major blow against an organized crime leader by Mexican officials.